How Does It Work? The Role of Religion in Society

La Sagrada Familia

Religion is one of the fundamental institutions or ways of living in society.[1]  Its contributions and limitations are undeniable.  However, there are differences of opinion regarding what its roles are in society or should be like, for that matter.  And yet, because every opinion is contextually-situated and, in that respect, limited, every opinion or hypothesis deserves our thoughtful consideration.

In the scholarly study of religion, there are three main views that help us understand how religion fits in society and what purposes it serves: the functionalistic, the conflictivist, and the symbolic-interactionist views.  Let us briefly describe them and what their areas of concerns are.

First of all, minimizing social conflict, religion usually maintains the dominant establishment of any society and preserves its legacy.  From this standpoint, religion, like other social institutions, creates balance and harmony in people’s lives to make things “work.”  It is another piece of the big machinery we call “society”, a micro-organism of a larger, integrated body. As such, religion makes some contributions and has limitations as well (a functionalist perspective).

Second, seen through the lens of how its values, beliefs, and actions embody the structures, ideologies, and patterns of behavior of the larger society, religion typically replicates the same tensions and conflicts we find in the secular world, especially with respect to the issues of power, privilege, inclusion, use of resources, and classes of people, with the corresponding inconsistencies or ambiguities.  As such, religion plays a pivotal role in facilitating social change, slowing it down, or making it harder to be achieved (a conflictivist perspective).

In addition to the first two views, religion also provides spaces for its members to interact with each other in changing, complex ways, and to exercise different levels of influence in doing so.  This interaction is part of larger societal systems and is meaningful, even when its members might not be fully aware of them and their implications (a symbolic-interactionist perspective).

Putting all these views in the back burner for a moment, religion plays more specific functions. I hereby summarize some of the most important ones:

  1. It gives order, purpose, and meaning. Religion provides structure and coherence to people’s existence, whose lives would otherwise be chaotic, shapeless, and nonsense. In other words, religion gives people an identity: it tells them who they are, where they come from, and where they all headed.
  2. It creates networks of significant relationships. Through common values, beliefs, and actions, religion unites believers in a fraternal spirit so that all of its members may have fellowship and show solidarity to each other in order to strengthen their faith as they invite others to join. Religion helps people connect to others thus creating a sense of community.
  3. It provides moral guidance on how to live in the world. Religion is like an existential GPS or handbook that leads people’s path in their effort to express their solidarity to those who suffer or need a loving hand.  It gives people an idea about to live and act in goodness with respect to a Higher Reality and themselves.
  4. It offers some answers to the reality of good and evil. It its effort to guide people to live a good life, it is true that religion many times fails to answer all the questions regarding what is right and what is wrong, why there is evil in the world, and role – if any – the Holy plays in it.  Fortunately, believers are not left orphans inasmuch as religion offers them some faith-based answers regarding morality and the problem of theodicy.
  5. It gives emotional support.  In response to the uncertainty and challenges of life that tend to overwhelm individuals and communities, religion gives people faith and hope as it helps them monitor and deal with emotions such as guilt, self-esteem, fear, and concerns, in light of deeper, spiritual values. Believers can find in it the incentives and spiritual medicines to deal with many psychological challenges constructively.
  6. It controls people’s lives.  Through the creation and enforcement of religious values and moral norms, religion exercises a strong social influence in the believers’ life-journeys.  This form of social control – in addition to some structural constraints -, is only possible thanks to people’s free-will decisions to believe in and accept those values and norms.
  7. It helps cope with present misfortunes in light of a better world. In religious communities, tragedy, pain, disease and/or death are normally understood in terms of spiritual, overarching better plans and believers are guided to look forward to a superior life in this life and the next one.  Life’s present ordeals are part of a preparation for the future.
  8. It takes side with and supports the status quo. As a replica of the larger society, religions (by intent or default) normally play a conservative role identifying themselves with people in positions of privilege and power, while doing nothing or little to criticize, oppose, or fight against the establishment, and even neglecting the needs to those who suffer most.  When this happens, religion equips people for “heaven” and ignores “hell” on earth.
  9. It generates morally ambivalent or paradoxical results. As a pervasive, human phenomenon- with its possibilities and limitations- religion both includes and excludes, gives life and takes it away.  To our surprise, while It seeks to do good, it also produces the opposite effect.  No wonder religion, just like other institutions, is guilty of oppressing, exploiting, or hurting others.[2] At the end of the day, no institution is morally perfect or absolutely innocent.

In no way am I suggesting that these are all the roles religion plays or that religion fulfills all these functions at the same time.  In principle, they are all reasonable and valid, interpretative possibilities to be used when deemed suitable.  Not only are they all interconnected, but one of these function or any combination of them might be more relevant than the other possibilities, at any given time.  Again, the roles vary and so do their interpretations.

Along with some corrections or qualifications to the list of interpretations I have provided, other views could also be added since no interpreter monopolizes the truth or characterizes it flawlessly.   As we accept this invitation, let us keep in mind that all of us, as individuals, also play specific roles as members of our respective religious communities, which could well reinforce, diversify, or even challenge the ideas I have summarized in the present post.  We all play a part too!

 

[1] See also my other posts on the theme “Understanding Religion:” http://blogs.reinhardt.edu/ich/2017/01/25/what-is-religion-naming-a-faith-driven-experience/ ; http://blogs.reinhardt.edu/ich/2017/02/10/in-our-image-and-likeness-how-does-religion-facilitate-a-relationship-with-the-holy/ ; http://blogs.reinhardt.edu/ich/2017/02/18/in-the-beginning-the-origin-of-religion/

[2] The following quotes illustrate this function:  “Religion is the opiate of the people” (Karl Marx) and  “Religion is excellent stuff for keeping common people quiet” (Napoleon Bonaparte).

About amartinez

Dr. Aquiles E. Martinez is Professor of Religion (Biblical Studies) and Coordinator of the Religion and Philosophy Programs at Reinhardt University. Ordained in the United Methodist Church, Dr. Martinez has dedicated a good part of his life to equip pastors and church leaders in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States, with the appropriate skills, knowledge, and experiences so they can serve their communities effectively. In addition to his many books, articles, and essays published in English and Spanish, Dr. Martinez has served several churches and the global community as an effort to help people develop significant relationships with God and their neighbors, especially with marginalized communities.
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